Evaluating barley for the emerging craft malting industry in western Washington

Brook Brouwer1, Patrick Hayes2, Paul  Schwarz3, John Barr3, Kevin Murphy4, Steve Lyon1 and Stephen Jones11 Dept. of Crop and Soil Science,
Washington State University, Mount Vernon, WA 98273; 2Dept. of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331; 3Dept.
Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108; 4 Dept. of Crop and Soil Science, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164, 5
Dept. of Plant Sciences, UC Davis, Davis CA
95616

Abstract

The North American craft brewing industry has expanded rapidly in the past decade supporting the recent emergence of craft malting. Craft maltsters are creating demand for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in minor production regions. Growing malting barley in these under-represented areas, such as western Washington requires identification of cultivars with suitable agronomic and quality characteristics. Twelve two-row spring barley cultivars where evaluated for two years at four western Washington locations to assess suitability for craft malt production in this region. Standard North American malting cultivars had lower agronomic performance and yield stability when compared to locally adapted feed cultivars (Table 1). Susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting greatly reduced grain quality resulting in a high proportion of samples unsuitable for malt quality evaluation (Table 2). Cultivars with the highest levels of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting did not meet malt quality standards when malted according to standard micro-malting methods (Table 3). Craft maltsters may have the flexibility to produce malt from cultivars previously deemed unacceptable for malting (Table 4; Figure 1). This work suggests the need to adjust the malting process to work with locally adapted cultivars while expanding regional testing and breeding programs. 

Table 1. Means ± standard deviation (SD) across years and locations for grain yield, heading date, plant height, lodging, leaf rust and powdery mildew of cultivars grown in MVCON, MVORG, ISLAND, WHATCOM trials during the 2013 and 2014 growing season.

 

Yield1

(kg ha-1)

Heading2 (Days from Jan 1)

Height3 (cm)

Lodging3 (%)

Leaf Rust4  (%)

Powdery Mildew4 (%)

Genotype

Mean

± SD

Mean

± SD

Mean

 ±
SD

Mean

 ±
SD

Mean

± SD

Mean

± SD

Richard

6407 ±1240

172 ± 14

66 ± 9

5 ± 15

16 ± 19

0 ± 0

2004NZ170

5528 ± 1384

173 ± 14

60 ± 9

12 ± 23

33 ± 19

12 ± 8

AC Metcalfe

4959 ± 1144

170 ± 14

81 ± 12

14 ± 26

53 ± 34

24 ± 23

Baronesse

5466 ± 945

170 ± 14

73 ± 12

16 ± 26

26 ± 18

22 ± 22

Bentley

4435 ± 1041

172 ± 15

81 ± 15

17 ± 30

47 ± 28

30 ± 27

Bob

5408 ± 1136

171 ± 14

75 ± 10

26 ± 33

21 ± 16

30 ± 24

CDC Copeland

4602 ± 1032

173 ± 14

86 ± 16

30 ± 37

66 ± 29

28 ± 24

CDC Meredith

4672 ± 1030

172 ± 15

75 ± 12

28 ± 37

47 ± 34

26 ± 20

Full Pint

4957 ± 1385

171 ± 15

61 ± 10

2 ± 6

2 ± 4

42 ± 22

Harrington

4516 ± 1052

171 ± 14

77 ± 12

29 ± 36

69 ± 33

4 ± 4

Hockett

4527 ± 920

169 ± 16

75 ± 12

28 ± 39

68 ± 30

32 ± 21

Newdale

4744 ± 1200

170 ± 15

75 ± 14

19 ± 35

43 ± 31

28 ± 28

Mean

5018

171

74

19

41

23

CV

12.4

0.5

7.6

118.1

29.1

26.7

1 Mean of all locations in 2013 and 2014.

2 Mean of MVCON and MVORG in 2013 and 2014.

3 Mean of MVCON, MVORG, and WHATCOM in 2013
and all locations in 2014.

4 Mean of MVCON and MVORG in 2013 and all
locations in 2014.

Table 2. Means ± standard deviation (SD) across years and locations for grain protein, test weight, plump kernels, falling number, germination energy (GE), germination capacity (GC) and water sensitivity (WS) of cultivars grown in MVCON, MVORG, ISLAND, WHATCOM trials during the 2013 and 2014 growing season.

Genotype

Grain Protein

(%)

Test Weight (kg hl-1)

Plump Kernels (%)

Falling Number (sec)

GE

(%)

GC

 (%)

WS


(%)

Mean

± SD

Mean

± SD

Mean

± SD

Mean

± SD

Mean

± SD

Mean

± SD

Mean

± SD

Richard

10.5 ± 1.5

61 ± 3

86 ± 8

287 ± 62

97 ± 5

98 ± 3

6 ± 6

2004NZ170

11.6 ± 1.6

61 ± 3

79 ± 12

269 ± 77

96 ± 3

98 ± 2

9 ± 8

AC Metcalfe

11.5 ± 1.9

60 ± 4

81 ± 13

164 ± 73

87 ± 8

92 ± 9

20 ± 14

Baronesse

11.4 ± 1.4

62 ± 3

85 ± 7

363 ± 49

97 ± 5

99 ± 1

4 ± 6

Bentley

11.4 ± 2

57 ± 4

81 ± 12

173 ± 99

95 ± 6

96 ± 5

14 ± 11

Bob

10.5 ± 1.8

63 ± 3

84 ± 11

262 ± 92

96 ± 4

97 ± 3

11 ± 8

CDC Copeland

12 ± 1.6

58 ± 3

78 ± 15

202 ± 85

93 ± 5

94 ± 8

8 ± 9

CDC Meredith

11.6 ± 2.1

56 ± 4

77 ± 12

174 ± 78

91 ± 6

93 ± 8

24 ± 14

Full Pint

11.9 ± 1.9

60 ± 3

84 ± 9

131 ± 63

85 ± 13

88 ± 16

16 ± 12

Harrington

11.9 ± 2

57 ± 4

75 ± 16

136 ± 79

91 ± 8

90 ± 11

20 ± 14

Hockett

11.5 ± 1.7

59 ± 4

77 ± 14

215 ± 110

97 ± 3

98 ± 3

9 ± 10

Newdale

12 ± 1.7

59 ± 3

75 ± 16

206 ± 82

98 ± 3

98 ± 4

5 ± 5

Mean

11.5

60

80

215

94

95

12

CV%

7.4

2.6

7.2

16.9

5.0

3.6

60.0

 Table 3. Means ± standard deviation (SD) across years and locations for _-amylase, malt extract, FAN, and _-glucan of cultivars with >90% germination energy and <10% water sensitivity, grown in MVCON, MVORG, ISLAND, WHATCOM trials during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons.

 

_-amylase (DU)

Extract

 (%
Dry Basis)

FAN

_-glucan (ppm)

Genotype

Mean

± SD

Mean

± SD

Mean

± SD

Mean

 ±
SD

Richard

59 ± 9

81 ± 2

164 ± 27

319 ± 75

2004NZ170

53 ± 8

80 ± 2

159 ± 27

319 ± 118

AC Metcalfe

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Baronesse

52 ± 6

80 ± 2

137 ± 21

277 ± 142

Bentley

67 ± 4

84 ± 0

168 ± 28

48 ± 55

Bob

56 ± 8

81 ± 2

157 ± 27

333 ± 142

CDC Copeland

67 ± 8

83 ± 1

194 ± 34

57 ± 52

CDC Meredith

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Full Pint

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Harrington

87 ±

83 ±

187 ±

78 ±

Hockett

75 ± 10

83 ± 2

187 ± 28

181 ± 184

Newdale

71 ± 2

82 ± 2

163 ± 15

151 ± 133

Mean

65

82

170

196

CV

0.5

1.0

5.0

23.8

 Table 4. Richard pilot malt trial data relative to mean of micro-malted samples. Micro-malt values are the mean ± standard deviation (SD) of samples with >90% germination energy and <10% water sensitivity grown in MVCON, MVORG, ISLAND, WHATCOM trials during the 2013 and 2014 growing season. To produce the pilot malt, 140 kg of grain grown at WSU Mount Vernon in 2014 was malted by Skagit Valley Malting using custom equipment and a cultivar specific malting regime.

_-Amylase

Extract (%DB)

FAN

_-glucan

 

Richard
Micro-malt

59 ± 9

81 ± 2

164 ± 27

319 ± 75

Richard
Pilot-malt

49.5

79.1

152

56

Figure 1. (left to right) Increase strip of Richard (2004NZ151) at WSU Mount Vernon; pilot malt sample; and wort sample from test brew produced by Skagit Valley Malting.  Richard has been released by WSU and is currently undergoing seed increase and field scale testing.
Figure 1. (left to right) Increase strip of Richard (2004NZ151) at WSU Mount Vernon; pilot malt sample; and wort sample from test brew produced by Skagit Valley Malting. Richard has been released by WSU and is currently undergoing seed increase and field scale testing.
Washington State University